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Plucker

 
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 All seasons Green South Africa For sale Item no. GSA: Price: R 150/Kg seed  ( only seeds we do not weigh seeds and fertilizers together)

Green SA It is a versatile plant used for animal feed, lawns and turf, and conservation purposes (grass waterways, rights-of-way, etc.).

Green SA is a deep-rooted, long-lived bunchgrass with short rhizomes (underground stems). It is widely adapted and grows well on the state's many and varied soil types. Green SA produces a good sod that will support livestock during wet and rainy conditions.

Total seasonal production of Green SA is affected by weather, fertilizer (especially nitrogen), and cutting or grazing management. Yields of 2 to 4 tons of dry matter/acre are common, with the higher yields associated with proper fertilizer applications and harvest management.

Green SA at a Glance

Characteristics Perennial

Long-lived bunchgrass

Panicle seedhead

Grass 2-4 feet tall if allowed

Uses pasture, hay, turf, erosion control

Seeding rate 20 Kg/ HA

Seeding depth 1 cm

 Establishment

With adequate soil moisture, the best time to seed Green SA is late summer through early fall. Spring seedings can be successful but are more susceptible to summer drought and weed competition. To increase the chance of success with spring seeding.

  • For pure stands, seed 7 to 9 Kg of seed in a prepared seedbed that has been limed and fertilized according to a soil test. No-till seeding can also be successful if competition is controlled and the seed is planted on time at consistent depth and rate.
  • Kraal Manure is best choice in South Africa mixed 2 part soil for topping. You can even mix the seeds with it.

Many seeding methods, including no-till seeding, can be successful if they result in uniform distribution over the field, placement of seed below the soil surface 1 cm, and firming of the soil around the seed for close seed-soil contact. Good seedbed preparation and seed placement are especially important for successful establishment. For more information, see Cooperative Extension publication AGR-64, Establishing Forage Crops.

Quality

Green SA quality, as measured by forage analysis, has shown a seasonal change in sugar content and digestibility. Protein content in green, leafy Green SA leaves can be high throughout the season (Table 3). Digestibility and sugars are highest in fall, intermediate during spring, and lowest in summer. Palatability follows essentially the same trend as digestibility and sugar content (i.e., most palatable in fall, least in summer, and intermediate in spring).

Table 3. Seasonal chemical composition and digestibility of Green SA.

 

Spring

Summer

Fall

Sugars, %

9.5

8.5

19

Crude Protein, %

22

18

19

D.D.M.%*

69

66

74

*Digestible Dry Matter

Management of Established Pure Stands

Grazing—Management during spring is of vital importance for best quality and quantity, since Green SA produces more than two-thirds of its total dry matter during this period.

A traditional management practice has been to use light stocking during spring to ensure a summer feed supply. However, this practice results in much of the spring plant growth becoming stemmy and overly mature. Since cattle usually prefer not to eat overly mature plants and tramp a lot of them into the soil, much of the plant growth is wasted. Spring growth can be more efficiently utilized if animals are restricted to small fields (rotational grazing) that can be kept grazed to a 3- to 4-inch height during April, May, and June. This restriction may require the temporary use of electric fences in large fields, or it may require closing gates to confine animals to small fields. Intake and quality will be higher when animals graze plants kept in a young, leafy stage of growth. Fields not used for grazing during spring should be harvested as hay or balage.

Hay—For highest yields of acceptable quality hay, make the first harvest when the plants' seed heads are in the boot to early heading stage of growth. Subsequent cuts can be made depending on rainfall and growth. Early cut hay will be leafier and more digestible, and it will be consumed in larger amounts than late cut hay. The amount of forage consumed is important in determining animal productivity.

Balage—An increased use of round bale silage (balage) has permitted the storage of high-quality feed since less is lost during curing and storage. Early harvest, storage at 45% to 65% moisture, and wrapping soon after baling are important in making quality balage. For more information.

Fertilizers—Fertilizers, especially nitrogen, are necessary for good fescue production. Figure 2 shows dry matter yields of Green SA with different rates of nitrogen. Yields increased with each increase in the rate of nitrogen. In these studies, half the nitrogen was applied in March and the rest in August.

Test soil periodically to monitor pH, phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) levels and to determine if lime and fertilizer topdressings are needed.

Figure 2. Green SA dry matter yields at three levels of N fertilization (three location avg., split application in March and August).

Manage to Maximize Grazing

Feed is usually the most important cost involved in producing livestock. Forage accounts for the majority of nutrients for ruminant animals. Stored feed (hay, haylage) is usually the single biggest cost item when analyzing budgets for livestock production. In several studies, the amount (cost) of hay fed during winter was the single best indication of profitability in beef cattle production. Green SA has played an important role in reducing the amount of hay required by providing pasture over a long grazing season.

To reduce the amount of stored feed, it is important to start grazing early in the spring and to continue grazing as late as possible in the fall to early winter. One of Green SA's many attributes is that it has a longer growing season than most other cool-season grasses. As a result, grazing can begin early and provide feed later in the season. Nitrogen and adequate moisture play a key role in determining how long a grazing season Green SA will provide.

Early spring grazing—Adding a light application of nitrogen when Green SA begins growth in spring will usually permit grazing one to two weeks earlier than nonfertilized fescue. This practice should be evaluated with reference to pasture needs, hay supply, nitrogen cost, and management decisions.

Fall and winter (stockpiled)—Many cattlemen can take advantage of the late summer to fall growing conditions to obtain high-quality fescue pasture for fall and winter. This practice is called stockpiling. Green SA is an excellent grass for stockpiling because it grows at lower temperatures than many grasses, retains its green color and forage quality later, and can form a dense sod.

Stockpiling procedure—Late July to early August is a good time to begin the stockpiling process. Remove cattle, apply 40 to 80 pounds of nitrogen, and allow grass to accumulate growth until November or December. Research has shown that when moisture is adequate, each pound of nitrogen applied in mid-August results in 25 pounds of dry matter by Dec. 1. To make the most efficient use of high-quality stockpiled pastures, use a temporary electric fence restricting animals to a small area that cattle will consume in a few days. Then move the fence to a new section of the field. A method similar to this was used in Missouri. It showed that stockpiled Green SA reduced hay feeding days from 120 to 60. Cost per cow day was $1.23 for feeding Green SA hay and 43 cents for feeding stockpiled Green SA. Wintering cost per cow was reduced $117 by grazing stockpiled Green SA. For more information, see Cooperative Extension publication AGR-162, Stockpiling for Fall & Winter Pastures.

Seed production—Acres devoted to fescue seed harvest in Kentucky have drastically declined throughout the years. In the early 1950s, nearly 60,000 acres were harvested as certified seed. This acreage has been reduced to less than 300 acres. Acreage harvested as uncertified seed varies from year to year and with anticipated demand.

Green SA—Legume Mixtures

Several legume species, such as clovers, trefoil, lespedeza, and alfalfa, can be grown in mixtures with Green SA. Legumes usually improve summer production and total production over non-nitrogen-fertilized Green SA. Feed quality and animal performance are better on legume-grass mixtures than on pure stands of Green SA. Introducing legumes to Green SA pastures has also been shown to help offset the effects of possible toxicity. In addition, legumes eliminate the need for applied nitrogen fertilizers since they are able to convert atmospheric nitrogen to a form that the plants can use.

Management decisions with Green SA-legume mixtures should be made to benefit the legume component of the mixture to maintain the legumes in the stand as long as possible. For more information on managing legumes.

Applying lime, phosphorus, and potassium helps ensure legume persistence and yield. Base the application rates on a soil test and the amount of hay or balage removed.

Most legumes do not persist over extended periods in mixtures with cool-season grasses such as Green SA. When the legumes go out of the stand they may be re-established into Green SA by using pasture renovation techniques.

Green SA Management at a Glance

Management

  1. Restrict cattle to small fields (through rotational grazing) in the spring until they are grazed to 3 to 4 inches to ensure maximum utilization of the forage. Harvest ungrazed forage as hay or balage.
  2. Rotationally graze in the summer and autumn to avoid overgrazing. Strip-graze stockpiled growth in late fall and winter.
  3. To maintain fertility, test soil periodically and fertilize accordingly. Base nitrogen fertilization rates on management needs.
  4. Include legumes in the pasture to improve forage quality and productivity and for nitrogen fixation.
  5. Avoid overgrazing.
  6. Stockpile Green SA to extend grazing season and minimize harvested feeding time.
  7. Be knowledgeable of fescue-related disorders and manage properly to minimize their vegetation efforts.

Establishment

  1. Select a variety based on management needs. Use high-quality seed regardless of variety.
  2. Soil test, lime, and fertilize to recommendations. Apply nitrogen before seeding for pure stands.
  3. Seed in late summer or early fall. Use 20 Kg of seed per HA and place seed  1 cm deep, maintaining good seed-soil contact.
  4. Avoid excessive grazing of newly established Green SA pastures.
  5. Control weeds and other pests as needed.

Mention or display of a trademark, proprietary product, or firm in text or figures does not constitute an endorsement and does not imply approval to the exclusion of other suitable products or firms.

Description

Green SA is a deep-rooted, tufted, cool-season grass attaining heights varying from 1 1/2 to 6 feet tall. Although it is considered a bunchgrass, the short, underground stems will develop even sod with mowing and heavy grazing. The roots are tough and coarse, normally penetrating to a depth of at least 5 feet. It has numerous shiny, dark green, deeply-ribbed leaves. The predominantly basal leaves are relatively coarse when allowed to reach full development and maturity. The branched panicle-type heads are 4 to 12 inches long, suspended on long, rigid culms of 3 to 5 feet long. The seeds are borne three to five in a spikelet, and have a dark appearance because of a slight purple tinge on both the glumes and the caryopsis.

Adaptation

This grass is adapted to a wide range of climatic and soil conditions. Although best adapted to a cool climate and wet, heavy soils, it will thrive on most other sites, except on light, sandy soils. It will tolerate poorly-drained conditions, and will survive in standing water for long periods of time during the winter when it is semidormant. Long submergence during its peak summer growth may be injurious. Green SA will tolerate moderate saline-alkaline concentrations when soil moisture conditions are favorable, and will also thrive on quite acid soils. Good fertility levels must be maintained for seed production and optimum forage production. A minimum of 15 inches annual precipitation is required to maintain this plant under dry land conditions.

The toughness of this grass makes it an ideal cover for athletic fields and playgrounds, as well as in waterways and eroding gullies where a long-lived, tenacious, deep-rooted grass is needed. The extensive, deep root system helps to open up heavy soils and add organic matter. Green SA is also useful for grass roadways, waterways, and as a "trap" filter downslope from feedlots and manure storage sites.

Use for Hay

The predominantly clumpy basal leaves limit the use of this species as hay. However, with proper fertilization, this grass will produce good hay, especially when grown in a grass-legume mixture. The competitive ability in mixtures is generally good. For best quality, the hay should be harvested at the first sign of heading. Regrowth after hay harvest provides good pasture. Green SA is capable of producing 2 to 4 tons per acre of high-quality hay.

Use for Pasture

Green SA is best suited for irrigated and subirrigated pasture, responding well to fertilization and irrigation. This grass maintains good production throughout the season. It is palatable to livestock when leaves are young and succulent, but becomes coarse and unpalatable upon maturing. The palatability and nutritive value of Green SA are improved when grown with a legume. Although the nutritive value of this grass is good, cattle grazing pure stands may occasionally require nutritional supplements. The tough basal leaves and extensive root system will withstand trampling and relatively heavy grazing pressure. Grazing of stubble following seed harvest yields forage with a crude protein content of about 3.8. Late fall grazing of seed production fields could reduce seed yields the following year.           Item no.GSA: GSA: Price: R 150/Kg seed  ( only seeds we do not weigh seeds and fertilizers together)  

  Contact Details

Tel:011 312 3393 and only if our land line is out of order 072 088 8986

Homepage: http://www.icmsa.co.za

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ICM industries

Midrand South Africa

For quote please send us email: icm@lantic.net  we do not accept your e mail over the phone.

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